Wonderful Mira heads for maximum brightness

Updated: A star is shining quite brightly in the morning sky where none was visible just a few weeks ago. It is not a nova, but instead a great opportunity to see Mira, one of the best known variable stars in the heavens.

Mira, in the constellation of Cetus, the sea monster, has a huge range in brightness. It goes from being an easy naked-eye object to a star visible only with a telescope. At the time of writing, Mira is best seen before dawn, and already bright, but by mid-August it will be rising in the east at around midnight and close to its maximum brightness.

Most naked eye variables change in brightness by a fairly small amount. Mira is different because it can be seen easily with the unaided eye at its best but fades until it can only be seen in binoculars or a telescope when at minimum.

The name Mira means “wonderful” so it was clearly named for this impressive behaviour. Its catalogue name is omicron Ceti and it lies about 420 light years away from Earth.

Mira is indicated in this photo taken from Preston Montford, Shropshire, England, on 30 November, 2018. Image credit: Paul Sutherland

Its variability is said to have been first spotted by the astronomer David Fabricius who mistook it for a nova in 1596. Today we know that Mira is the brightest in a class of star called the long-period variables – red giants of which around 6,000 are known.

Usually, Mira only reaches around magnitude 3.5 at brightest and may only get up to fifth magnitude in a cycle that lasts around 11 months. In some years in can reach magnitude 2.

The extreme observed range of brightness for Mira is 1.7 at its maximum and 10.1 at minimum with a period of about 332 days. This means that the maximum occurs about a month earlier every year. The next maximum is due in mid August, 2021.

Variable star Mira shines brightly in the skies of Shropshire on 2018, November 30. Image credit: Paul Sutherland

By mid July 2021, Mira was already easy to spot at at around magnitude 2.5, so the upcoming maximum seems likely to be a bright one.

The way I always find it is to look for a pattern of three stars in the tail of Cetus which resemble a “false Aries” as they make a similar pattern to the zodiacal constellation that can also be seen nearby. Follow a line through the two stars making the longest side of this triangle for the same distance to the west and you will hit Mira.

Chart for Mira. Compare with the photo above. The magnitudes of some brighter stars are indicated. Image credit: Paul Sutherland, using Stellarium

I produced the accompanying chart with the free and excellent planetarium program Stellarium, which I annotated to show some star magnitudes.

You can find another map on the Society for Popular Astronomy website with links to observing charts carrying magnitudes of suitable comparison stars so that you can make your own estimates of Mira’s brightness. Or just take a look for yourself and marvel at one of the most wonderful stars in the naked-eye sky.

Related: How to observe variable stars

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